3 Oct 2022
6 mins
Top 3 Cancers In IndiaThe most common cancers in India [http://cancerindia.org.in/common-cancers/] are breast cancer, oral cancer, and cervical cancer. According to the recently published report of the National cancer registry programme 2021, the highest proportion of cancer from all parts were reported in the age group 45 – 64 years, except for prostate cancer. The tobacco-related cancers comprised 48.7% of cancers among men and 16% among women. After tobacco, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, obesity, and air pollution are major risk factors. Let’s discuss in detail about the 3 most common types of cancers in India. MOST COMMON CANCERS IN INDIA   A. BREAST CANCER:   Breast cancer is the leading cancer in India and worldwide and is commonly seen in women above the age of 50 and who have been through menopause. Breast cancer was seen in a higher proportion in the age group 45 – 49 years, according to the report of the National Cancer Registry Programme 2021 [https://ncdirindia.org/All_Reports/HBCR_2021/resources/HBCR_2021.pdf]. A lump in the breast is often the initial symptom of breast cancer, but it is important to remember that more than ninety percent of breast lumps are caused by less serious conditions.    A mammogram (breast x-ray) is the screening test for breast cancer. It checks for cancers before there are symptoms of the disease, and when cancers are found in early stages, they are most treatable. Women above 40 and above should get an annual mammogram, and the screening recommendations may vary if you have any risk factors like obesity, family history of breast cancer, have had previous radiation therapy, etc. It is very vital to let your doctor know if you see any signs of breast cancer [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/cancer-care/early-symptoms-of-breast-cancer]like changes in shape, color, appearance, or size.  B. ORAL CANCER/ MOUTH CANCER: [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/cancer-care/oral-cancer-awareness-month]   Among the cancers associated with tobacco use, the highest among both males and females is mouth cancer. Cancers that occur in any part that constitutes the oral cavity, including the floor or roof of the mouth, lips, tongue, cheek linings, and gums, are called mouth cancers, and if the cancer is present inside of the mouth, it can be referred as oral cancers or oral cavity cancers. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the primary risk factors for mouth cancers.    The most common symptoms include unexplained and persistent lumps in the mouth or lymph glands in the neck and sore mouth ulcers that do not get better after several weeks. The problem is symptoms may not occur in the initial stages, and the symptoms can also be caused by less serious diseases such as infection. There are no standard or routine screening tests for oral cancer, Hence, having a regular dental check-up is crucial for finding mouth cancers early.    C. CERVICAL CANCER:   Like breast cancer, cervical cancer was seen in a higher proportion in the age group 45 – 49 years. Cervix is the part of the uterus that connects it to the vagina, and cervical cancer occurs when cells in the cervix begin to grow uncontrollably. Almost all cervical cancer cases are due to human papillomavirus infection [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/cancer-care/cervical-cancer-causes-identification]. This virus can spread through any skin-to-skin contact of the genital area. Abnormal vaginal bleeding is often the initial symptom of cervical cancer. Check with the physician if you have abnormal vaginal bleeding, pain during intercourse, or pelvic pain. Cervical cancer is slow-growing cancer, and screening and HPV vaccination can help find cancer at early stages and reduce the risk of cancer growth. Pap tests, also called pap smear tests, and HPV tests, are the screening tests for women. If you are a woman aged 21 or above, talk with your doctor about getting a Pap test.  A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE CAN HELP PREVENT CANCER   Around 50 percent of cancers can be prevented by eliminating the risk factors. Tobacco can cause cancers almost everywhere in the body, and the first thing you can do to reduce your cancer risk is quitting tobacco and alcohol consumption. Include more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in your daily diet.    Maintain a healthy weight and reduce or limit processed foods and red meat intake. Aim for moderate physical activity of 150 minutes or intense physical activity of 70 minutes per week. When you need to go outside, use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 30 or higher. Get recommended vaccinations and screening tests.  
Guruvigneshwari
1 Oct 2022
5 mins
Raising Breast Cancer Awareness: FAQsBreast cancer awareness month is celebrated every year in the month of october globally. It is celebrated with the aim of creating awareness about breast cancer and supporting those affected by it. In India, Breast cancer has been ranked the no: 1 cancer affecting 1 in 28 Indian women. The prevalence of breast cancer has risen up that the reports state that every 4 minutes a woman in India is getting diagnosed with breast cancer and every 13 minutes a woman dies due to breast cancer.   Breast cancer is regarded as advanced cancer since it produces a high mortality rate, but the truth is that most Indian women express a no serious attitude towards the early warning signs and are unaware of the screening tests. To create breast cancer awareness, Let’s see 12 frequently asked questions about breast cancer [http://oncologyinternational.com/diseases/breast-cancer/] which might help to resolve most of the doubts related to this disease.   TOP 12 BREAST CANCER FAQS   1.What is Breast cancer?   Breast cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the breast. It  occurs when the cells in the breast begin to multiply and divide abnormally, and this abnormal growth of breast cells leads to the formation of a lump or a mass in the breast. 2. Do men get breast cancer? Men and women both are prone to breast cancer. However, men are less prone to get breast cancer when compared to women.   3. What are the causes of breast cancer [https://www.cancercenter.com/cancer-types/breast-cancer/questions]? The exact cause behind breast cancer is not known. However, a few risk factors are said to be associated with breast cancer. They are:   * Increase in age * Family history * Obesity * Gene mutations (BRCA 1 and BRCA 2) * Late menopause * Getting early menstruation * Having no children * Alcohol consumption and smoking * Exposure to radiation * Long term use of oral contraceptives * Physical inactivity 4. What are the symptoms of breast cancer [https://www.indiancancersociety.org/breast-cancer/index.html]? The various symptoms of breast cancer are:   * Formation of lump or mass on the breast or the underarm * Changes in the breast shape, size, or appearance * Changes around the skin near the nipple or the breast like peeling, redness, crusting, flaking, or scaling. * Inverted nipple * Redness or darkness around the breast * Dimpling of the breast skin * Nipple discharge that is bloody or clear * Swelling in the breast * Itching or a rash on the nipple. 5. How to lower the risk of breast cancer [https://www.health.ny.gov/diseases/cancer/breast/freq_asked_quest_breast_cancer.htm]? There are no proven methods that could help prevent breast cancer. However, by lowering the risk factors, the chances of developing breast cancer can be reduced. They are:   * Being more active physically * Maintaining a healthy lifestyle * Stopping or reducing alcohol consumption or smoking * Breastfeeding * Limiting hormonal replacement therapy. 6. How to screen for breast cancer?   Breast cancer screening [https://www.indiancancersociety.org/breast-cancer/index.html] can be done in the following ways. They are:   * Self Breast Examination * Clinical examination by a doctor or a nurse * Mammography 7. What is a Self Breast Examination?  A self breast examination is a method that is used to examine the breast and check for changes that might be an indication of breast cancer. Self breast examination can be done monthly by using the following steps:   * Visual inspection * Standing up and inspecting manually * Lying down and inspecting manually 8. What is mammography? Mammography is an x-ray imaging method used to examine the breasts for any abnormality that can be cancerous. The x-ray image of the breast is known as a mammogram, and it is used as an early screening method for breast cancer. 9. How to diagnose breast cancer? The following test can be done to diagnose breast cancer.   * Breast ultrasound * Biopsy * Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10. How to treat breast cancer? Breast cancer can be treated by the following methods. They are:   * Surgery [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/cancer-care/all-about-breast-conservation-surgery] * Radiation therapy  [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/cancer-care/radiation-therapy-for-breast-cancer-treatment] * Chemotherapy * Hormonal therapy * Immunotherapy * Targeted drug therapy [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/cancer-care/targeted-therapy-hope-breast-cancer] * Palliative care   11. Can breast cancer be cured completely?   Yes, when screened and treated early, breast cancer can be cured. 12. What are the breast reconstruction options available? There are two main techniques of reconstruction surgeries available.  (i) Flap reconstruction: Tissues from your own body (autologous tissue) are taken and used to reconstruct the breast. Usually the tissues are taken from the belly (abdomen). thigh or back. (ii) Implant reconstruction: In this procedure saline or silicone implants are used to recreate breast tissue. WRAP UP Although breast cancer is the leading cancer related to death, with the advancements in cancer medicine, it is now treatable even at advanced stages. However, it is suggested to you to undergo regular screening if you realize that you are at greater risk of breast cancer and spot the minor abnormalities in breast instantly to start off the suitable treatment.   This Breast cancer awareness month 2022, spread the word among your kith and kin about the importance of watching out the signs and symptoms of breast cancer to get it detected and treated early.   
Arwa. Alikaber
30 Sep 2022
6 mins
What Are Migraine Attack Symptoms And Stages?Experiencing migraine attack symptoms can leave the person looking for any kind of relief as they can be so intense. Understanding the stages of migraine and their symptoms could help identify the symptoms early. Early identification of symptoms and treatment can be helpful in effectively managing migraine. It can even prevent the pain phase in some people.  STAGES OF MIGRAINE AND SYMPTOMS:   A migraine episode can occur in four stages, and each stage has a set of distinct symptoms. People who have migraine episodes might have all of these stages or some of these stages. The headache stage is the most prevalent stage, and the aura is the least occurring stage.    PRODROME:    Prodrome stage, also known as the pre headache phase or premonitory phase, is the first stage of a migraine episode. The symptoms in the stage are generally painless and can occur a few hours or days before the headache. Taking medication, avoiding triggers, and stress management can help to prevent headaches in a few people. The typical symptoms of this stage include:   * Food cravings * Urinating more than usual * Stiffness in the muscles * Trouble concentrating * Depression [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/mental-wellness/depression-symptoms-causes-treatment], irritability * Tiredness * Sleeping problems * Nausea * Yawning * Sensitivity to sound and light AURA:    The aura occurs ten or thirty minutes before the headache and lasts for five to sixty minutes. Some people experience both the aura phase and headaches at the same time. This stage affects a person’s touch, speech and vision. Visual disturbances are very common, and a person experiencing these symptoms may find it terrifying. Moving to a darker and quiet room as soon as you have these symptoms can help you recover faster. The aura stage symptoms include:   * Seeing sparkles, bright flashing dots, or lights * Blind spots in the vision * Numbness or tingling in the skin * Temporary vision loss * Seeing jagged or wavy lines * Changes in speech, smell or taste   HEADACHE:    Pulsating or throbbing pain in the head is the headache stage, and it can last for four to seventy-two hours. The pain typically occurs on one side of the head, and over time it may shift towards the other side. Other than pain in the head, the migraine attack symptoms that may occur in this stage include:   * Nausea and vomiting * Stomach pain, upset * Appetite loss * Sweating, chills * Pale skin color * Sensitivity to sound, light and odors * Tiredness * Blurred vision, dizziness * Changes in the speech   Everyday activities such as walking can worsen the pain.    POSTDROME:    After a severe headache, some people tend to experience the postdrome stage. This stage is also known as migraine hangover, and up to 80 percent of people can experience this stage. It can last one or two days. The typical symptoms of the postdrome stage include:   * Unable to concentrate and understand things * Feeling depressed and exhausted * Feeling euphoria WHAT CAN BE DONE?   When you experience any symptoms such as gastrointestinal disturbances, visual disturbances, or loss of concentration along with headache, it is important to get consulted with a physician. He/ she can prescribe medications to take during the attack and to prevent the attacks (if severe).   If you have been given medication to take during the attack, it is most effective when taken early. So, if you have any pre headache symptoms, take the medication as soon as possible. Always carry your medication with you.   Avoid bright lights, smells, and noises when you have a migraine. Move to the darker and quiet room. Drink a glass of water or ask your family member or friend to prepare ginger tea.   Place an ice pack on the temples or head. It can help constrict expanded blood vessels and relieve pain. Or apply or inhale the lavender or peppermint oil. These essential oils can help reduce the severity of the headache.   Stress management [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/mental-wellness/relieve-mental-stress] techniques, avoiding triggers [https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/top-10-migraine-triggers/] (certain foods, stress, dehydration), and sound sleep can prevent frequent attacks. THE TAKEAWAY   Migraines are unique to each person, and hence prevention and management can also be unique. Learning the migraine attack symptoms, consulting a doctor, preventing triggers, and lifestyle changes can prevent and manage migraine.    If you are pregnant, do not take medications without consulting a healthcare professional as it can affect the unborn baby. Also, before using over-the-counter medications frequently, check with the physician as it may cause medication-overuse headaches.  
Guruvigneshwari
29 Sep 2022
7 mins
World Heart Day 2022Every year on September 29th, World Heart day is celebrated globally to raise awareness about cardiovascular diseases [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/heart-care/six-most-common-heart-diseases], their management, and prevention. In 1999 World heart day was first observed, and this international heart day was created by the World Heart Federation in collaboration with the World Health Organisation. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cause maximum death globally. According to World Health Organisation (WHO), in 2019 [https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cardiovascular-diseases-(cvds)], an estimated 17.9 million people died due to cardiovascular diseases, accounting for 32℅ deaths globally.    Here's an insight into the risk factors that increases a person's risk of getting cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and tips to prevent the risk WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVD)? [https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353118]   Various risk factors increase the chances of developing heart or cardiovascular diseases. These risk factors are extremely common, making many people vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases.   1. Family history: Genetics plays a vital role in a person's health. A family history of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) might increase a person's risk of CVD. A family history of high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, or high blood pressure is a potential risk factor. 2. Diabetes: [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/diabetes/common-side-effects-of-diabetes] High glucose levels in the body can act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Increased glucose levels in the blood can cause harm to the walls of the arteries.  3. High blood pressure: Hypertension or high blood pressure increases a person's risk of cardiovascular disease and can also affect the kidney and brain. Hypertension acts as a silent killer as it usually doesn't have any symptoms. High blood pressure usually increases the workload of the heart, which causes the heart muscles to become thick and stiff. 4. High blood cholesterol Level: High levels of bad cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol) put a person at risk of CVD. High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the body can lead to the deposition and build-up of fatty substances in the walls of the artery, which can give rise to various problems. 5. Smoking: The habit of smoking can cause severe damage to the arteries. The incidences of heart attacks and angina pectoris are more in people who smoke when compared to those who don't. 6. Alcohol: Heavy alcohol consumption can cause various heart issues like blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and blood pressure. 7. Physical inactivity: It is an essential risk factor for various CVD. Physical inactivity can lead to obesity and high blood pressure, which can increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. 8. Obesity: Being overweight or obese can invite various health conditions, including cardiovascular disease. People with obesity might develop CVD and stroke even if they don't have other risk factors. 9. Stress: Excessive stress increases the risk of developing various heart conditions [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/heart-care/stress-induced-heart-disease]. Stress causes the heart rate and blood pressure to increase, and stress also increases the risk of a heart attack.  10. Diet: An unhealthy diet on regular bases can lead to weight gain, which in turn can cause heart problems, obesity, increased cholesterol issues, etc. TOP 7 TIPS TO PREVENT THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES [https://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/risk-factors-for-heart-disease]   1. Stop smoking: Smoking is a major risk factor that damages cardiac health. Smoking can not only cause damage to the heart but also give rise to lung problems and even cancer. If you are a heavy smoker, then quit the habit today. If you don't smoke, don't start it and avoid exposure to second-hand smoke. 2. Maintain low cholesterol levels [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/heart-care/reduce-cholesterol-with-food]: A healthy diet rich in nutrition and low in cholesterol, trans fats, saturated fats, carbohydrates, and sugar must be taken regularly to maintain a healthy weight, and prevent the risk of developing CVD. 3. Controlling high blood pressure and diabetes: Eating a healthy diet and including foods that lower blood pressure [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/hypertension/foods-that-lower-blood-pressure] and high levels of sugars, taking medications on time, regularly exercising to maintain a healthy weight, and stress management can control hypertension (high blood pressure) and diabetes. 4. Limit your alcohol intake: Stop the consumption of alcohol or drinking in moderation to maintain good cardiovascular health. 5. Physical activity: Regular physical activities like walking, jogging, swimming, skipping, or yoga for 15 to 20 minutes can help improve cardiovascular health by reducing obesity and controlling blood pressure and diabetes.  6. Eat a healthy diet: A diet packed with nutrients and low in sodium, sugar, trans, and saturated fats are essential to maintaining heart health. 7. Stress management [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/mental-wellness/relieve-mental-stress]: Stress can trigger various health problems, including CVD. Practicing relaxation techniques like yoga, meditation, guided imagery, and deep breathing can help keep stress at bay. Apart from that, therapy and counselling can also help manage stress to attain optimum heart health. CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH FOR EVERYONE   This World Heart Day 2022, spread the word about the importance of cardiovascular health among your kith and kin. Raise awareness about the various risk factors that are commonly practiced but can become life-threatening in the long run. This World Heart Day 2022, ensure that you follow all the preventive measures for safeguarding your cardiovascular health and encourage your family and friends to follow these measures too.  
Arwa. Aliakber
28 Sep 2022
7 mins
Commonly Reported Food Triggers For Migraine: Find Your Food Trigger And Avoid ItYou are closer to effectively managing the pain and preventing future attacks , if you can find your migraine trigger. Migraine, commonly known as migraine headaches, is a neurological condition that usually presents with severe pain in the head and other symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. People with migraine can have about four episodes of migraine each month. There are a number of triggers for migraine attacks that vary in each individual. Here are some commonly reported food triggers for migraine-by-migraine patients. WHICH FOODS TRIGGER MIGRAINES?   1. CAFFEINE:    Caffeine is an ingredient of some headache medications, and caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea, and sodas can offer relief for a mild headache. But it is one of the triggers mentioned by people suffering from migraine. Too much consumption of caffeine or caffeine withdrawal can contribute to caffeine-related headaches and migraine attacks.    Our brain develops a dependency when we regularly drink coffee or tea, and when we don’t have it, headaches can occur as a result of withdrawal. Researchers suggest that too much caffeine can reduce the magnesium (vital nutrient for pain conditions) levels in the body and dehydrate the body. As a result, this may end up in migraine attacks.    2. ALCOHOL:    Alcoholic beverages are one of the major food triggers for migraine reported by migraine patients, and people who consume red wine may be particularly more prone to attacks. A 2019 study on 2197 patients [https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30565341/] with migraines states that 35.6% of participants reported alcohol as a migraine trigger.    People may get a headache after a few hours of alcohol consumption or as a delayed hangover effect. The substances in alcoholic beverages such as histamine, sulfites, and tyramines can be linked to migraine attacks. Dilation of blood vessels and dehydration caused by alcohol can also contribute to migraine attacks.    3. MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG):    Monosodium glutamate is the salt of an amino acid called glutamic acid, which is naturally found in our bodies. Preservatives have been linked to migraine attacks, and monosodium glutamate is the familiar preservative on the list.    According to the American Migraine Foundation [https://americanmigrainefoundation.org/resource-library/diet/], MSG may be attributed to triggers for severe pain in 10 to 15 percent of the people with migraines. MSG is present in foods such as canned soups, instant noodles, potato chips, fast foods, Chinese foods, and frozen foods. The mechanism behind this substance is not yet fully understood, and the dilation of blood vessels in the head caused by MSG might be the reason for being a trigger.    4. CHOCOLATE:    Chocolate is the second most common food trigger for migraine next to alcohol, according to the American migraine foundation. The caffeine and beta-phenylethylamine in the chocolates could be the reason for triggering attacks. Beta-phenylethylamine is a compound that can stimulate the brain.    Migraine symptoms occur in phases, and the prodrome phase is the initial phase in which people may have symptoms such as food cravings. The craving for sweet foods such as chocolate could be a warning of a migraine attack in migraine patients.    5. AGED CHEESE:    Aged cheeses contain a substance called tyramine. Tyramine is a chemical naturally found in the body that helps control blood pressure. This chemical could trigger a migraine attack by constricting and dilating blood vessels. The more aged the cheese is, the more tyramine will be present in it. The most common type of cheese that causes triggers include blue cheese, parmesan cheese, and Swiss cheese.    6. ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS:    They are sugar substitutes that can be used instead of regular table sugar to add sweetness to the foods. People who want to reduce sugar or calories in the diet may go for artificial sweeteners. They are also used in processed foods. Artificial sweeteners, particularly aspartame, can increase the risk of migraine attacks.    7. CURED MEATS:    Cured meats such as bacon, ham, hot dogs, and sausages contain the ingredients nitrates and nitrites. They are added to preserve the flavor and color of the meat. These ingredients can lead to the release of nitric oxide in the blood vessel. This nitric oxide can dilate the blood vessels in the head and could trigger a migraine attack. In addition, some cured meats might contain tyramine which can also precipitate a trigger.    The other notable foods to avoid include salty foods, pickled foods, foods that contain yeast, frozen foods, citrus fruits, nuts and nuts butters.  THE BOTTOM LINE   The above-listed foods are some commonly reported foods. Foods not mentioned in the list could also be your migraine trigger. Healthy eating habits can help largely in migraine management [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/mental-wellness/stress-migraine-causes-symptoms-prevention-management]. Avoid skipping meals or fasting as they can increase the risk of migraine. Stay hydrated. Always have meals at set times each day.    Try to keep a food journal. It will help you identify the food triggers. If you suspect a specific food is causing a migraine, avoid that food and notice the changes. Make sure your food contains enough magnesium, vitamin B2 and CoQ-10. You can also try out home remedies [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/mental-wellness/home-remedies-treat-migraine] to ease the pain.  
Guruvigneshwari
27 Sep 2022
7 mins
Gynaecological Cancer Awareness Month Gynaecological cancer awareness month is observed in September every year globally, and the event is commemorated by wearing a purple ribbon. The various types of gynaecological cancer include the vagina, ovaries, cervix, vulva, and uterus. Of all these, Cervical cancer is the most common type of gynaecological cancer among Indian women. According to the report https://ncdirindia.org/All_Reports/HBCR_2021/resources/HBCR_2021_Ch4.pdffrom 2021 released by the Indian Council Of Medical Research (ICMR), cervical cancer accounted for 15.2% of all cancers occurring in women. Here’s an insight into cervical cancer and its stages. WHAT IS CERVICAL CANCER?   Cervical cancer develops in the cervix cells, which connect the uterus to the vagina. This cancer may damage the deeper cervix tissues and metastasize to other organs, including the liver, lungs, bladder, vagina, and rectum. Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) that is acquired through sexual contact plays a major risk factor in causing cervical cancer.    STAGES OF CERVICAL CANCER   According to the facts and figures produced by WHO and Globocan, it has been reported that cervical cancer is ranked number 2 among the leading cancers in Indian women of all ages. India contributes 25% of the total burden of cervical cancer cases globally. The HPV center of India has presented the latest report stating that cervical cancer has become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Indian women, especially in women in the age group between 15- 45 years. WHY ARE CERVICAL CANCER CASES SOARING UP IN INDIA?    India is witnessing a steady rise in cervical cancer deaths due to a lack of awareness and hesitancy to get screened. It has been estimated that only 2% of the female population has undergone cervical cancer screening [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/cancer-care/cervical-cancer-causes-identification]. Share this blog with all the women in your life to spread awareness of cervical cancer [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/cancer-care/cervical-cancer-causes-symptoms-treatment].   TELLTALE SIGNS OF CERVICAL SIGNS [https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cervical-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20352501]   * On and off Vaginal bleeding * Heavy menses * Spotting after menopause * Weight loss * Foul-smelling vaginal discharge   By the time the symptoms show up, cancer would have got localized, and that’s the reason for the least survival rate of cervical cancer.   WHY IS STAGING PERFORMED IN CANCER?    The staging of cervical cancer is done to characterize the development of cancer based on the location and grade of the tumor and determine the spread of the cancerous cells to the neighboring body organs.   The oncologist will craft the treatment plan accordingly by recognizing the cancer stage since cancer treatment is highly personalized for individual patients. Besides this, determining the cancer stage helps predict the survival rate and the chances of recovery.   However, the cancer staging is not similar for all types of cancer, and the stages are categorized distinctly for every cancer.   According to the international federation of gynecology and obstetrics, there are four stages of cervical cancer [https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/cervical-cancer/stages]   Stage 0 - Cancer had developed only in the innermost lining of the cervix.   Stage 1- Cancer has been developed and is limited only to the cervix.   Stage 2- Cancer has spread to the local regions and has reached the upper two-thirds of the vagina.   Stage 3 - Cancer cells have got extended to the pelvic floor and started invading the ureters.   Stage 4 - Cancer has been developed and reached beyond the pelvis and affected the rectum or bladder However, for a detailed understanding, FIGO has classified the significant categories of cervical cancer into subcategories based on the tumor grade:   Stage IA: Preclinical invasive that can be diagnosed only through microscope.   Stage IB: The cancer lesion will be only tangible and confined to the cervix.   Stage IB1: The tumor size is not greater than 4.0 cm in diameter.   Stage IB 2: The size of the tumor is beyond 4.0 cm in diameter.   Stage IIA: The cancer is spread to the upper two thirds of the vagina.   Stage IIB: The tumor reaches and invades the parametrium region but has not extended to the pelvic sidewall.   Stage IIIA: The tumor has outgrown to lower one third of vagina and is not extended to the pelvic wall still.   Stage IIIB: The tumor has developed massively and reached the pelvic side wall and invaded the ureters.   Stage IVA: The cancer cells begin to invade the mucosa of the urinary bladder.   Stage IVB: It is the stage of metastatic cervical cancer, where the cancer cells have spread to distant organs.   HOW DO ONCOLOGISTS CONFIRM THE STAGES OF CERVICAL CANCER?   Well, there are few primary diagnostic tests to detect cervical cancer [https://www.mrmed.in/health-library/cancer-care/cervical-cancer-warning-signs-screening-vaccine].   * HPV/PAP test * Physical examination * Biopsy * Imaging tests   Stages of cervical cancer and its spread can be confirmed by performing the imaging studies such as    * CT Scan- * MRI to determine if the tumor is benign or malignant * PET scan THE FINAL NOTE   This Gynaecological cancer awareness month promotes and raises awareness of a specific type of gynaecological cancer, such as cervical cancer, and its stages. It is important that women are aware of the signs and symptoms of any kind of gynaecological cancer and look out for any unusual changes to their bodies. Ensure to educate people about the significance of early detection and motivate them to get tested as soon as possible when they notice the symptoms.  
Monikashree.T