Cervical Dysplasia

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Cervical Dysplasia
27 Jan 2024
10 Minutes
Table Of Content
Cervical Dysplasia

    "Empower Your Health: Learn, Test, and Thrive Against Cervical Dysplasia."

     

    What is cervical dysplasia?


     The cervix is the entrance of your uterus that is connected to the upper part of your vagina. Cervical dysplasia is a condition characterized by the development of abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix. It is a precancerous condition that develops as a result of these abnormal cell growth. Cervical health is a crucial aspect of women's healthcare and overall well-being; understanding the conditions that lie behind is key in managing the condition.

     

    The global prevalence of both high-grade and low-grade cervical dysplasia is 4.3% and 6.2%, respectively, with peak prevalence observed in European women. This is identified as a precancerous condition that itself is not a cancer, but if it is left untreated or unidentified, there is a chance that it may progress into cervical cancer over a prolonged period of time. Join us as we feed you with complete knowledge of cervical dysplasia, right from the root causes to the treatment options available. 

     

    Causes of cervical dysplasia

     

    The major cause of cervical dysplasia is the underlying infection present when exposed to the Human papillomavirus [HPV]. It is a virus that actively spreads through sexual contact. Our immune system, in many ways, gets rid of the HPV virus, but there are more than 100 strains of the virus. Among them, two particular strains such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, are strongly associated with causing the infection in the cervix and potentially leading to cervical dysplasia. It is solely caused by HPV infection, not due to any other causes, but having an HPV will not necessarily indicate that you will surely develop cervical dysplasia.


     Risk factors for cervical dysplasia

     

    1. Age: People usually tend to have longer HPV infections over the age of 55, and it is resolved quickly in young women.
    2. Weakened immune system: if you are taking immunosuppressive drugs for any conditions, it might weaken your immune system, which makes it difficult to fight against the HPV virus.
    3. Smoking: people who smoke cigarettes and use tobacco are at higher risk of developing cervical dysplasia than the non-smoking population.
    4. Multiple sex partners and early initiation of sexual activity.

     

    Symptoms of cervical dysplasia

     

    Most of the time, cervical dysplasia is a silent condition that does not cause any symptoms. However, in some cases, as the stage progresses, patients may develop some symptoms such as, 

    • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
    • Bleeding during menopause
    • Abnormal vaginal discharge
    • Pain during intercourse

     

    Stages of cervical dysplasia

     

    As you all are familiar with, cervical dysplasia is an abnormal growth of cells in the epithelial layer of the cervix; the rate at which these cells grow and spread determines the grade or stage of cervical cancer. There are usually three stages of cervical cancer classified as,

    • CIN-1 is a stage where the abnormal cells affect one-third of the thickness of epithelial tissues in the cervix. It is referred to as low-grade cervical dysplasia.
    • CIN-2: the first stage of cervical dysplasia progresses to this stage where the abnormal cells affect up to two-thirds of the thickness of epithelial tissues in the cervix, and often, this stage is referred to as a high-grade one.
    • CIN-3: this final stage of cervical dysplasia can affect more than two-thirds of the thickness of the cervical epithelium and very often progresses to cancer by causing whole epithelial tissue to be affected.

     

    Diagnostic methods of cervical dysplasia

     

    Diagnosing cervical dysplasia as early as possible is key to providing suitable treatment options available. This disease does not show any symptoms; routine screening tests become necessary in diagnosing the disease itself. 

    1. Pap smear test: It is a procedure for testing cervical cancer in women. It collects cervical cells that test for any underlying abnormality. It is usually repeated every 3- 5 years, depending on the risk factors.
    2. HPV test: It is used to detect the presence of human papillomavirus strains that may potentiate and cause cervical dysplasia. It is often used in conjugation with pap smear tests for enhanced accuracy.
    3. Colposcopy: your healthcare provider uses a colposcope that magnifies the cells in the cervix to detect any abnormalities, and further biopsies can be done.

     

    Treating cervical dysplasia

     

    In the majority of cases, cervical dysplasia might resolve on its own and fade away like in-grade cervical dysplasia, but sometimes it progresses and reaches a stage of cervical cancer, often requiring treatment. The treatment options involve destroying the abnormal cells that have the potential to develop into cancer cells.

     

    1. Cryotherapy:

     

    This treatment procedure involves freezing the abnormal cells using liquid nitrogen. More often, this procedure is employed to treat mild to moderate cervical dysplasia. The process involves freezing the cells with an extremely cold chemical before removing them. This eliminates the abnormal cells to allow new, healthy cells to regrow in the same location.

     

    2.  Loop electrosurgical excision procedure[LEEP]: 

     

    This method employs a small and thin loop that is electrically charged and is used to cut away the abnormal cells in the cervix.

     

    3. Cone biopsy [conization]: 

     

    As the name suggests, it involves the removal of cone-shaped abnormal tissues and cells from the cervix. It was once used as a preferred treatment option for cervical dysplasia. Still, the potential complications, such as cervical stenosis and post-operative bleeding, gave it a setback. It is now employed for treating severe cases of cervical dysplasia.

     

    4. Hysterectomy: 

     

    The surgical procedure that involves removing the uterus. It is employed only when all other treatment options fail, and cervical dysplasia is still persistent.

     

    Prevention of cervical dysplasia: 

     

    Myths and facts

     

    Myth: Cervical dysplasia will lead to cervical cancer

    Fact: Not every cervical dysplasia will develop as cervical cancer; only the untreated and persistent ones may pose as cervical cancer

    Myth: cervical dysplasia always presents with noticeable symptoms

    Fact: in contrast with other diseases, cervical dysplasia does not show any symptoms; it reveals certain symptoms only after it is severed. 

    Myth: only older women develop cervical dysplasia

    Fact: cervical dysplasia can affect women of all ages who develop an infection against the active strains of human papillomavirus [HPV].

     

    Conclusion

     

    The overall health outcome and well-being of women can be promoted by essentially identifying and addressing cervical health. Early detection using regular pap screenings and personalized treatment approaches is vital in preventing the development of cervical cancer. 


                                                          "Screening Wisdom: Your Armor Against Cervical Challenges."

    Written by
    author
    Dr. Thamizhakaran K SMedical Content Writer
    AboutThamizhakaran K S is a Medical Content writer at Mr.Med. He completed Doctor of pharmacy from Annamalai University in 2023. He has worked as clinical pharmacist intern at Government Cuddalore medical college and hospital. During internship he gained expertise on clinical pharmacology, pharmacotherapeutics and clinical research. He also published an research project in International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research. He has thorough knowledge on clinical trail methodologies and various pharmacovigilance guidelines. He possesses a strong interest in writing and uses his research skills to clearly communicate health information to the readers.
    Tags :Cervical dysplasia Human papillomavirus cervical cancertreatment of cervical dysplasia