World Immunization Day 2022
World immunization day is celebrated every year on November 10 and the main goal of this day is to create awareness among people about vaccinations and how it helps in preventing various diseases through various immunization programs. As the name suggests, immunization is the process of developing immunity or resistance to fight against various infectious diseases and it prevents the spread of infectious diseases to others. In this immunization week let’s see about the difference between vaccination and immunization and interesting facts about the diseases that are completely eradicated and eliminated.
According To WHO
- More than 20 life-threatening diseases can be prevented by vaccines, aiding people of all ages to live a long healthy life.
- Immunization currently prevents 3.5- 5 million deaths yearly from various diseases like influenza, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and measles.
What’s The Major Difference Between Vaccination And Immunization?
|Vaccination triggers the immune response to protect against diseases.||Immunization creates a resistance to fight against infectious diseases through vaccination.|
|It is administered through injections or orally.||It is not administered through injections and it is developed by the body.|
|Vaccination cannot give completed resistance to the body.||Complete resistance and immunity occurs when the patient is recovered from the disease.|
|Mutations of microbes make vaccinations ineffective.||Variations in diseases increase body’s capacity to generate immune response|
|Inactive form of virus or pathogen is injected||On exposure to inactive pathogens, relevant antibodies are produced to fight against diseases.|
On this world immunization 2022 awareness day, let’s see about two infectious diseases that have been successfully eradicated. Disease eradication is required when the disease is infectious and spreads to many people rapidly.
Smallpox is a contagious disease which is caused by the Variola virus. It spreads from person to person very easily and is recorded as a serious contagious disease. Common Symptoms of smallpox includes, Fever, progressive skin rashes, fatigue, back pain and vomiting.
Prevention: Small pox is prevented by isolating the infected individuals to avoid the spread of infection. Smallpox vaccinations are introduced to prevent the infection and it should be given before or one week after the exposure to the virus. Two vaccinations that are reported successfully for the eradication of smallpox virus ar:
- The ACAM2000 vaccine
- A second vaccine (Jynneos)
Success rate: On world immunization day it's happy to know that smallpox is completely eradicated. No cases have been recorded under naturally occurring smallpox since 1997. The last outbreak of smallpox occurred in the United states of America in 1949.
8 Eliminated Diseases
1. Polio: Polio is a crippling infectious disease caused by polio virus and it affects the brain, spinal cord causing paralysis. It was eliminated worldwide by using the polio vaccine and making sure that children and infants are vaccinated to prevent this disease.
2. Tetanus: Tetanus is caused by clostridium tetani and symptoms are stiffness in muscle and lockjaw. Vaccinations like Tetanus Toxoid and DTP- Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis vaccine are used to eliminate diseases like diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis.
3. The Flu: Flu is an illness of the respiratory system caused by influenza virus. Influenza(flu)vaccines (flu shots) are given two doses to eliminate influenza virus.
4. Hepatitis B: It spreads through blood and other bodily fluids and also spreads from infected mother to the child during child birth. Hepatitis vaccine is given shortly after child birth.
5. Measles: It is a highly contagious viral disease and it leads to serious complications like blindness, pneumonia, encephalitis. Measles vaccines were made available in 1960 resulting and it got gradually reduced between 2000 to 2018.
6. Mumps: It is caused by the rubella virus and spreads through respiratory droplets which leads to low grade fever, inflammation and respiratory problems. Mumps vaccines have reduced 99% of cases since 1967.
7. Chickenpox: It is caused by varicella zoster virus and it is highly infectious which causes fever and itchy blisters all over the body. Chicken pox vaccination has prevented the spread of this virus by 90%.
8. Malaria: Fatal disease which is caused by parasites and transmitted to humans causing high fever, severe infections and leads to death if untreated. Malarial vaccinations provide 77% reduction of this disease within one year.
World immunization day 2022 aims to promote the use of vaccines and protection of people against various infectious diseases through many immunization programs. We have completely eradicated smallpox and rinderpest which was a life threatening disease for humans and animals. Rinderpest is an infectious life threatening disease that affects cattle,buffaloes and other wildlife. Humans' livelihood has been affected by stopping the consumption of milk and other dairy products due to the spread of this infection and India has been free from Rinderpest since June 1995. They organize many campaigns to raise awareness about the importance of vaccinations and everyone should get vaccinated to reduce the spread of deadly diseases and mortality rate. This day remains the historic achievements of several vaccinations across the globe which eliminated various diseases from spreading to many people.