World Diabetes Day 2022
World Diabetes Day is celebrated on November 14th each and every year. This special day provides an opportunity to raise awareness among the public about diabetes which is recognized as a global public health issue. People need to analyse how it really impacts the future generation. We should try to take preventive measures to control diabetes in both young and older individuals. In recent days, irrespective of age, gender, and other factors most of us are affected by diabetes. On this world diabetes day, let us discuss the risk factors of diabetes mellitus.
What Do You Know About Diabetes Mellitus?
It is defined as inability of the body either to secrete insulin or cannot use the insulin which is produced by pancreas. They are categorized into two types, type 1 diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes) and type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent diabetes). Type 1 diabetes is usually developed in children, teenagers, young adults where the pancreas secretes less insulin or no insulin. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood and it is known as adult onset diabetes. It occurs after 40 years of age due to obesity and lack of physical activities.
1. Heart and blood vessels disease: Diabetes mellitus can act as an underlying cause for several diseases that makes the condition worse. High blood glucose level from diabetes increases the force of the blood and damages the artery walls and blood vessels. Both high blood pressure and blood glucose level increases the risk of heart diseases. The most common heart diseases associated with diabetes are angina, coronary artery disease, narrowing of arteries and high blood pressure.
2. Nerve damage: Nerve damage is otherwise known as neuropathy. Increase in glucose content in the blood causes injury to the walls of tiny blood vessels or capillaries that supply the nerve. This is most commonly seen in legs and patients with diabetes have tingling sensation or numbness in the tips of the toe and fingers. When blood sugar is not controlled it spreads to the limbs over time. It also affects the nerves of the digestive system and causes problems like nausea, vomiting, constipation and diarrhea.
3. Kidney damage: Kidney usually has millions of blood vessels known as nephrons which are too tiny or small blood vessels that prevent the entering of waste to the blood. Damage of these tiny blood vessels are caused due to the increase of blood sugar levels which reduces the action of kidneys. If blood sugar is not maintained for a prolonged period of time it completely blocks the action of kidneys that it cannot remove wastes and excess fluid in the body. It leads to complete kidney failure and this is the serious risk factor of diabetes mellitus.
4. Diabetic eye disorder: Eyes are usually a more sensitive organ in our body and it has many tiny blood vessels that are damaged by increased internal pressure caused due to high glucose level. Diabetes directly and indirectly plays a major role in vision. Diabetic eye disease is a group of eye problems that affects more people with diabetes. High blood sugar level leads to blurry vision, cataracts, glaucoma and retinopathy and diabetes is the major cause for blindness in adults ages from 20 to 74. Controlling blood glucose level increases the chance of success rate in treatment of eye disorders.
5. Foot damage: As discussed earlier, increase in blood glucose level creates numbing and tingling sensation in toes and foot. Nerve damage causes poor blood flow to the feet and increases foot complications. It starts with cuts, blisters and if it is untreated it leads to several infections that keep on spreading to the toe, foot, and entire leg. Advanced stages include surgical removal of affected areas.
6. Pregnancy complications: High blood glucose levels are dangerous for both the baby and the mother. Pregnancy complications includes miscarriage, birth defects in developing baby, difficulty in getting pregnant occurs often when the diabetes is not well controlled. During pregnancy, diabetes increases also increases the risk factors like diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic eye problems and high blood pressure.
Tips For Preventing Diabetes Mellitus
- Regular exercise
- Focus on weight loss if overweight
- Follow healthy eating habits
- Quit smoking
- Identify the underlying cause as early as possible in pre-diabetic stage.
- Less intake of refined carbohydrates
- Consume fiber rich foods.
Understanding diabetes is the first step towards management and prevention of diabetes mellitus. On this World Diabetes Day 2022, let’s educate and help diabetic patients in management of this disease and pre- diabetic population to prevent them from diabetes. Diabetes is a leading global health issue which targets both the world diabetes day 2022 young and adult. We should follow lifestyle modification to reduce the rate of diabetes mellitus which is a serious illness.