Common Thyroid Problems and Diseases in India

Common Thyroid Problems and Diseases in India
5 Jan 2023
8 mins
Table Of Content
Common Thyroid Problems and Diseases in India

    Thyroid disorders make up for one of the most common endocrine disorders not only in India but all across the globe. Researchers have found that thyroid disorders have affected 42 million people in India. Among all the existing thyroid disorders, the 4 most common thyroid disorders included the following,


    • Hypothyroidism
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Goitre
    • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis


    Thyroid disorders when left unattended may lead to several other health issues like cardiovascular diseases, pregnancy related complications, osteoporosis and fertility problems. So, what are the various thyroid disorders affecting people in India? In this blog, we will learn more about these 4 common thyroid disorders.


    4 Common Thyroid Disorders In India

    1. Hypothyroidism 


    Hypothyroidism is a condition that arises when the thyroid gland fails to produce enough thyroid hormone. As a result of this decrease in the thyroid hormone production, the body’ s metabolism slows down. Hypothyroidism is also known as underactive thyroid. A report stated that the prevalence of hypothyroidism in India was found to be 11% when compared to other countries like the UK and USA.  


    Common symptoms of hypothyroidism in adults include,


    • Constipation
    • Weight gain
    • Skin dryness
    • Increases sensitivity to cold
    • Puffiness on the face
    • Muscle weakness
    • Memory issues or brain fog
    • Depression
    • Hair thinning and coarseness

    Common Symptoms of hypothyroidism in infants 


    • Growth and feeding issues
    • Weight gain problems
    • Jaundice
    • Skin dryness
    • Umbilical hernia
    • Crying with a hoarse sound
    • Constipation

    Complications of hypothyroidism 


    Although hypothyroidism may be a common condition, it can give rise to severe complications like,


    • Heart conditions like heart failure
    • A rise in bad cholesterol
    • Breathing issues
    • Mental health issues
    • Goitre (thyroid gland enlargement)
    • Myxedema coma
    • Infertility
    • Defects during birth
    • Peripheral neuropathy

    2. Hyperthyroidism 


    Hyperthyroidism is a condition that arises when the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormone in the bloodstream. This condition is otherwise also called an overactive thyroid. As a result of excessive thyroid hormone in the body, the metabolism of the body is high, which in turn can lead to problems like loss of weight, irregular and rapid heartbeats. 


    Symptoms of hyperthyroidism 


    • Loss of weight
    • Rapid and irregular heartbeat (tachycardia and arrhythmia)
    • Menstrual issues
    • Diarrhea
    • Increased appetite
    • Changes in the vision
    • Loss of hair and its texture
    • Profuse sweating
    • Weakness of muscles
    • Increased urination
    • Trembling hands
    • Fertility problems
    • Fatigue
    • Sleeping issues
    • Trouble sleeping

    Complications of hyperthyroidism 


    There are several complications that may arise if hyperthyroidism is left untreated. These complications include the following, 


    • Osteoporosis
    • Vision issues
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Heart problems like congestive heart failure (CHF)
    • Stroke

    3. Goitre


    Goitre is a condition that leads to the growing of the thyroid gland abnormally. In goitre, the thyroid gland increases in size making the front portion of the neck swell. Although anyone can develop goitre, women are at an increased risk. This thyroid gland enlargement may be due to formation of lumps in the thyroid. One of the most common causes of goitre is iodine deficiency. 


    Symptoms of goitre


    • Swelling or formation of lump in the front portion of the neck
    • Hoarse voice
    • Trouble swallowing
    • Breathing difficulty
    • Coughing
    • A tight feeling in the neck

    Complications of goitre 


    In some instances, multinodular goitre can give rise to complications like hyperthyroidism, breathing and swallowing problems. In case of patients having large multinodular goitre, surgery may also be needed. 

    4. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis


    Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, which is otherwise also called Hashimoto's disease. It is an autoimmune disorder that occurs when the body’s immune system attacks its own thyroid gland. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can lead to hypothyroidism. The exact causes of this condition are not known yet. 

    Symptoms of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis


    • Skin dryness
    • Pale skin and facial puffiness
    • Hair thinning
    • Feeling fatigue
    • Menstrual irregularities
    • Depression
    • Fertility issues
    • Constipation
    • Weight gain
    • Muscle and joint aches
    • Brittle nails
    • Trouble concentrating
    • Memory issues
    • Enlarged tongue

    Complications of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis


    There are several complications that may arise if Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is left untreated. These complications include the following,


    • Depression
    • Poor libido
    • High blood cholesterol levels
    • Heart failure
    • Confusion
    • Anemia
    • Pregnancy and birth defects



    Although thyroid disorders are common, they are serious and are to be attended medically. Acknowledging the symptoms of thyroid disorders, getting them diagnosed is important to provide timely treatment to the patient. This is essential to prevent any complication from arising, especially in infants and children.


    A lack of iodine in the body can also cause thyroid problems, hence it is essential to include foods rich in iodine in the diet. You can also get a diet specifically prescribed for the thyroid disorder you have. The thyroid disorders risk can be decreased by quitting smoking and reducing heavy alcohol consumption, managing and reducing stress and eating a healthy diet.

    Written by
    Arwa. Aliakber Medical Content Writer
    AboutB. Pharm
    Tags :HyperthyroidismHypothyroidismThyroid disordersGoitreThyroid disorder treatment