10 Most Common Types Of Autoimmune Diseases

10 Most Common Types Of Autoimmune Diseases
31 Mar 2023
10 mins
Table Of Content
10 Most Common Types Of Autoimmune Diseases

    With the recent advances in medicine and healthcare, we have come a long way in tackling various health issues, including chronic ones. However, we are also bound to witness a rapid rise in autoimmune disorders due to fast lifestyle changes. About 80 types of autoimmune diseases are prevalent worldwide that affect up to 4% of the population. Although this number does not seem like much, the prevalence of autoimmune diseases is steadily increasing. The impact is said to be three times more in women than men.

    A typical immune system usually fights back if it encounters a foreign body and destroys them even before it could harm our body. Thus the immune system prevents infection and diseases caused by foreign bodies to keep your body healthy. But what happens when this system identifies its tissues and cells as a foreign agents? This is where autoimmunity comes into the picture.

    Autoimmune diseases may result from exposing yourself to viruses or other environmental toxins. It may also occur due to genetic alterations. Whatever the cause may be, there are two types of autoimmune diseases: organ-specific and systemic. Organ-specific autoimmune disease is when an immune response is restricted to a particular organ like Addison's disease, type 1 diabetes, etc. On the other hand, systemic autoimmune disease is a broad range of diseases that causes inflammation in any part of the body due to immune system damage. 


    10 Most Common Types Of Autoimmune Diseases


    1. Type 1 Diabetes

    Type 1 diabetes is one of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases that usually starts in childhood. It is characterized by high sugar levels in the blood due to the absence of adequate hormone insulin. We require insulin hormone to metabolize the sugar levels in our blood. But in type 1 diabetes, the pancreas organ does not produce insulin hormone. Some of the frequent symptoms of type 1 diabetes include,

    • Frequent need to pass urine
    • Increased thirst and hunger
    • Weight loss
    • Skin and vaginal infections

    2. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a long-term inflammatory disorder of the joints that causes damage and disability. In this condition, your immune system attacks the protective lining around the joints called synovium. It triggers a lot of inflammation in your joints. This results in joint pain, stiffness and swelling. Typically, this condition involves joint disability, but it can also affect organs like heart, kidney, etc.

    3. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Systemic lupus erythematosus often affects women of reproductive age. It is a long-term autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation affecting multiple body organs. The treatment of lupus aims to suppress the immune system to prevent further organ damage. Since it affects different organs, the symptoms will not be limited to this condition alone. Here are a few frequently occurring symptoms,

    • Fever
    • Weight loss
    • Tiredness
    • Blood clots
    • Hair loss
    • Heartburn
    • Stomach pain

    4. Psoriasis

    Psoriasis is a skin problem that appears red, scaly, and erupted. It can occur in any part of the body. Still, elbows, knees, and scalp are primarily affected, which could irritate the skin and cause pain and itchiness. Typical symptoms of psoriasis include,

    • Pain
    • Redness
    • Itching
    • Silvery scales
    • Irritation
    • Inflammation

    Usually, the skin cell undergoes maturation in 21-28 days, travels to the skin's surface, and sheds off. But in the case of psoriasis, the skin cell turnover is rapid. It tends to reach the surface even before maturing completely. Psoriasis affects different people differently, and the treatment will be specific. Some may have tiny skin changes you can barely notice, while others may have problems in the large, visible part of the skin. After examining your health status, your physician will categorize your condition as mild, moderate, or severe.

    5. Celiac Disease

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune genetic disorder in which gluten-containing foods lead to severe damage in the small intestine. Gluten is one of the household ingredients present in wheat and barley that we regularly eat. Celiac Disease Foundation states that although this disorder affects 1 in 100 people, there are high chances that many people are undiagnosed.

    Undiagnosed or untreated celiac disease can hamper your health and lead to unexplained complications. Some frequent symptoms that indicate you should stop eating gluten include,

    • Unusual anemia
    • Tiredness
    • Diarrhoea
    • Vomiting
    • Bone or joint pain
    • Liver and bile disorders
    • Depression
    • Anxiety
    • Migraines
    • Seizures
    • Infertility
    • Mouth ulcers
    • Skin inflammation

    6. Graves Disease

    Graves disease is a condition in which the thyroid gland is overactive. In this condition, the immunoglobulins and antibodies make the cells overwork, resulting in the thyroid gland producing way too many thyroid hormones. Some of the most prominent symptoms of graves disease include,

    • Racing heartbeat
    • Hand tremors
    • Trouble sleeping
    • Weight loss
    • Muscle weakness
    • Heat intolerance
    • Inflammation of the eyes
    • Lumpy reddish thickening of the skin
    • Bulging of the eyes

    7. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Contrary to Grave's disease, Hashimoto's is characterized by an underactive thyroid. The term thyroiditis refers to thyroid gland inflammation. As the inflammation of the thyroid gland persists, the gland gradually loses its ability to function normally and produce hormones when required. It affects people irrespective of their age, but it is more common among middle-aged women. Hashimoto does not have any typical symptoms. many people with Hashimoto's experience symptoms of hypothyroidism like,


    • Tiredness
    • Weight gain
    • Constipation
    • Increased sensitivity to cold
    • Dry skin
    • Depression
    • Muscle pain
    • Low tolerance to exercise
    • Irregular or heavy periods

    8. Multiple Sclerosis

    Multiple sclerosis is a long-term central nervous system disorder where an immune response destroys the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord. It leads to motor dysfunction and cognitive impairment over time. Around 2.8 million people are diagnosed with MS worldwide, with women at a higher risk than men. The symptoms vary based on which area of the brain is affected. Not everyone with multiple sclerosis experiences the same symptoms. the most common symptoms of MS are, 

    • Tiredness
    • Pain
    • Bladder and bowel issues
    • Sexual dysfunction
    • Movement and coordination problems
    • Visual problems
    • Emotional changes

    9. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, include Crohn's and ulcerative colitis that cause prolonged periods of inflammation in the gastric tract. Since our gastric tract is crucial for digesting whatever we eat, inflammation can impair the organs to function properly. This inflammation results in symptoms such as,

    • Diarrhoea
    • Stomach pain
    • Rectal bleeding
    • Weight loss
    • Tiredness
    • Loss of appetite
    • Night sweats

    10. Sjogren's Syndrome

    Sjogren's syndrome is a disorder where the body attacks the glands responsible for producing moisture in the mouth, skin, eyes, vagina, gastric and respiratory tract. Since moisture is vital for our body systems to function correctly, even a slight delay in seeking treatment can lead to severe complications. The most typical symptoms are dry eyes, dry mouth, tiredness and joint pain, other symptoms include,

    • Burning sensation in the eyes
    • Peeling lips
    • Difficulty talking, chewing or swallowing
    • Sore or cracked tongue
    • Burning throat
    • Changes in taste and smell
    • Dental problems
    • Problems in digestion

    Major FAQs for Autoimmune Diseases


    1. What is the worst autoimmune disease?


    There are some worst autoimmune disease conditions that may affect life expectancy.


    • Autoimmune myocarditis.
    • Multiple sclerosis.
    • Lupus.
    • Type 1 diabetes.
    • Vasculitis.
    • Myasthenia gravis.
    • Rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Psoriasis.

    2. What is the most severe autoimmune disease?


    Some are well-known, such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, while others are rare and difficult to diagnose. With unusual autoimmune diseases, patients may suffer years before getting a proper diagnosis. Most of these diseases have no cure.


    Once You Choose Hope Anything Is Possible

    Autoimmune diseases have no cure as of now. However, there are some treatment approaches that help you effectively manage them. Most treatment involves taking medications to suppress your immune system so that your cells and tissues are safe. Your physician will assess your blood reports to detect the type and severity of your condition. You will be prescribed painkillers and supplements to prevent your symptoms from hampering your quality of life.

    Written by
    BhairaviMedical Content Writer
    AboutPharm D
    Tags :types of autoimmune disordersautoimmune diseasesautoimmunityautoimmune conditions