5 Brain Related Diseases - Symptoms, Risks, Diagnosis, and Treatments

5 Brain Related Diseases - Symptoms, Risks, Diagnosis, and Treatments
25 Sep 2021
12 mins
Table Of Content
5 Brain Related Diseases - Symptoms, Risks, Diagnosis, and Treatments

    The brain is the primary organ of the human nervous system, controlling nearly all bodily activities. The central nervous system's major organ releases dopamine, which the nervous system uses to send messages between nerve cells. The following are the three main components of the brain:

    1. Cerebrum
    2. Cerebellum
    3. Brain stem

    The brain being the most sensitive and master organ in the body, is equally vulnerable to infections and other ailments of varying severity, including brain cancer, tumors, Alzheimer's disease, alcoholism, amnesia, altitude sickness, autism, concussion, etc. Each of these brain disorders harms brain processes.


    Though it is difficult to treat complex brain disorders, significant progress in the fields of health science and medical research has provided a variety of treatment options for the majority of them.


    Have a look at some of the most prevalent brain disorders, their symptoms, causes, and treatment options.


    1) Alzheimer's Disease


    Alzheimer's is an irreversible, degenerative brain-related disease that gradually deteriorates memory, thinking skills, and eventually the patient is not able to perform even basic day to day tasks. It is the most common cause of dementia, which is defined as a loss of memory and thinking ability that interferes with daily activities and is always deadly, generally within ten years of onset.

    As a result of a buildup of plaques formed of the protein amyloid-beta and tangles made of the protein tau, brain cells (neurons) start malfunctioning and eventually die.



    Memory loss beyond what is expected with normal ageing, such as forgetting recent events or repeating questions that were answered just a few minutes ago, are common symptoms; difficulty performing everyday tasks, like driving a car or balancing a chequebook; and, as the disease progresses, the tendency for scratchiness and distrust are also common. People with Alzheimer's disease lose their independence over time, requiring more and more care; at the end of the disease, they are completely reliant on others.


    Risk Factors of developing Alzheimer’s

    The most important risk factor is getting older. Every five years post the age of 65, the risk of having Alzheimer's disease doubles. It's also possible that the condition has a genetic component.

    Many people who have Alzheimer's disease also have other illnesses, such as strokes, which can also exacerbate their dementia.


    Treatments Available

    There is currently no treatment; however, two types of medications are used to manage symptoms. They stop a chemical messenger called acetylcholine from breaking down, which is vital for learning and memory. These medications may help to reduce the progression of Alzheimer's disease.


    Other drugs could be used to alleviate symptoms, including depression, anger, or anxiety. In addition, eating a heart-healthy diet, exercising, staying socially active, and getting enough sleep also help a lot.


    2) Brain Tumor


    A brain tumor is an abnormal cell growth or mass in the brain. Tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Brain tumors that start growing in the brain are known as primary brain tumors. Before spreading to the brain, secondary (metastatic) brain tumors start as cancer in another part of the body and then reach the brain like a tumor.



    Headaches and nausea; hearing, vision, or speech impairments; problems with balance; loss of sensation or strength in the limbs; seizures; personality changes; and disorientation are some of the symptoms that might occur depending on the kind, size, and location of the tumor.


    Risk Factors of developing Brain Tumor

    The risk of growing a brain tumor rises with the increase in age.

    Ionizing radiation has been linked to an elevated risk of brain cancers in people who have been exposed to it. Radiation therapy for cancer treatment and atomic bomb radiation exposure are two examples.

    A tiny percentage of brain tumors develop in people who have a family history of a brain tumor or who have certain genetic abnormalities.


    Treatments Available

    Treatment is determined by the patient's overall health as well as the tumor's size and location. Surgery (physical excision of some or all of the tumor), and chemotherapy (the use of drugs to battle the growths) are common therapies available for the treatment.


    3) Autism Spectrum Disorder


    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often called developmental syndrome marked by a wide variety of social and emotional traits that can interfere with daily functioning and range in severity. The disorder is classified as developmental because the behaviors frequently arise in the first 24 months of life.



    Children may avoid eye contact, struggle to read, and have excessive attention to things and themes. Rocking, repeating words and phrases, trouble accepting changes in routine, and extreme sensitivity to sensory input are all common repetitive and restricted behaviors.

    Risk Factors of Developing Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Having older parents (children born to older parents), genetic disorders like Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome (inherited disorder with intellectual problems), extremely low birth weight, and having an ASD sibling are all risk factors.


    Treatments Available

    Although there is no cure for this illness, various therapy approaches can help alleviate symptoms and enhance functioning. Early and intense intervention can help children reach their full potential in terms of learning to speak, walk, interact socially, and master everyday skills that allow them to maintain healthy routines and relationships. To stimulate cognitive and social development among peers, speech and language treatment, occupational therapy, and physical therapy are widely suggested.


    4) Concussion


    A hit to the head or body, or a falling into a hard surface or object, causes the brain to bump roughly inside the skull, resulting in a concussion. The shaking can cause brain cell damage and stretch, resulting in chemical alterations and temporary loss of normal brain function, particularly in memory and orientation.



    A concussion can cause a brief loss of consciousness or a longer loss of awareness. Headache and dizziness, as well as slurred speech and disorientation, are all acute symptoms. Nausea, vomiting, a delayed response to queries, and weariness are some of the other symptoms


    Risk Factors of developing Concussion

    Car accidents fall, and injuries from sports like football, basketball, ice hockey, wrestling, soccer, field hockey, and lacrosse are the most common risk factors. A concussion can also be caused by a fall on the playground or while riding a bicycle.


    Treatments Available

    If the concussion occurs while playing sports, the player should be taken out of the game right away and evaluated by a neurologist. Athletes should not return to play until a neurologist has cleared them. Limiting activities like rapid walking can help with sports-related concussions. 


    5) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, after the New York Yankees baseball player whose career was cut short in 1939 due to this disease. This progressive neurological disorder affects the nerve cells (motor neurons) that control voluntary movement in the brain and spinal cord.



    The predominant symptoms are weakness and loss of muscular mass, which occur due to motor neuron degeneration. The person may not be able to stand or walk, use their hands and arms, chew and swallow food, or communicate later. They may eventually become unable to breathe without the assistance of a machine (mechanical ventilation).


     Risk Factors of developing Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    90 to 95 percent of ALS cases are sporadic, meaning they happen randomly and have no known cause. Individuals with sporadic ALS do not have a family history of the disease, and their relatives are not at a higher risk of contracting it.


    Treatments Available

    Although there is no cure, several drugs can help to decrease the disease's course and extend life. Medications can also be used to treat fatigue, muscle cramps, stiffness, constipation, discomfort, and excessive saliva. Depression and sleep problems which are frequent in people with ALS can be adequately addressed with medication and counseling. Patients may require feeding tubes and ventilator support if the condition worsens


    There are various steps you can follow that will reduce your risk of developing brain related diseases. Controlling risk factors like smoking, high cholesterol, obesity, lack of exercise, and high blood pressure are all important. These can all contribute to stroke and other neurological problems. Even if you have a neurological issue as you age, being healthy will make it easier to manage it.


    Written by
    PratikshaContent Writer
    AboutMBA (Marketing)
    Tags :brain disordersAlzheimer's diseaseneurological disordersbrain disorders