World Osteoporosis Day 2023
20 Oct 2023
8 mins
World Osteoporosis Day 2023"Beauty is only skin deep; Attitude is down to the bone."   Welcome to our exploration of world osteoporosis day, where the golden hues of October meet the strength within our bones. In this journey, we will uncover the secrets of bone health, dispelling myths and offering practical wisdom. Join us as we blend the essence of this vibrant month with the resilience of our bones, paving the way for a healthier, more robust tomorrow. Let's embark on this journey of understanding and empowerment together!   HISTORY OF WORLD OSTEOPOROSIS DAY   World osteoporosis day, is observed on the 20th of October each year.  It is an initiative led by the International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) to raise global awareness about osteoporosis and metabolic bone disease. The campaign, launched in 1996, involves events and activities in over 90 countries, supported by national osteoporosis patient societies. The World Health Organization has also been a co-sponsor. Each year since 1999, the campaign has focused on a specific theme, with the 2023 theme being "Build Better Bones."   Good bone health is vital to our quality of life and is the foundation for a mobile, independent future as we age. This year's campaign will reflect the importance of BUILDING BETTER BONES throughout life.   IMPORTANCE OF WORLD OSTEOPOROSIS DAY   Presently, osteoporosis is significantly underdiagnosed and inadequately treated. Across the globe, countless individuals with a high risk of fractures are oblivious to this silent ailment. World Osteoporosis Day (WOD) is a distinctive opportunity for individuals and organizations worldwide to draw attention to the disease and its impact.    WHAT IS OSTEOPOROSIS?   Osteoporosis, which means 'porous bone,' signifies a condition where bones thin out, losing their strength and density. This weakening can result in painful and disabling fractures, profoundly altering the quality of life, mobility, and independence. It is called a 'silent disease' because it often goes unnoticed until a minor accident causes a significant fracture, revealing the underlying condition.   DID YOU KNOW?   * Did you know that osteoporosis prevention commences in childhood? A diet rich in bone-friendly nutrients and regular exercise during childhood lays the groundwork for strong bones, decreasing the risk of osteoporosis later in life.   * Did you know that your body's ability to absorb essential vitamins and minerals reduces as you age? Calcium and vitamin D supplements can be beneficial, especially if you have a low intake of dairy products and limited exposure to sunlight. Calcium is crucial for maintaining strong bones and teeth, and vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption in the body. Supplementing these nutrients can help you maintain good bone health as you grow older.   * Did you know that one in four women who suffer a new spine fracture will experience another within a year? Timely diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis [] are crucial to preventing recurring fractures. Take action now for better bone health!   EYE-OPENING STATISTICS:   1. Globally, one in three women and one in five men [,sign%20of%20another%20impending%20one.] over 50 will endure a fragility fracture due to osteoporosis in their lifetime. 2. Osteoporosis leads to over 8.9 million fractures every year, amounting to an osteoporotic fracture every 3 seconds [,osteoporotic%20fracture%20every%203%20seconds.&text=This%20number%20is%20expected%20to,individuals%20will%20be%20over%2050.] worldwide. 3. According to the WHO definition, approximately 500 million individuals worldwide might be affected by osteoporosis. 4. Shockingly, 80% of patients with a fragility fracture remain undiagnosed and untreated for osteoporosis, the underlying cause. 5. Women face the highest rate of osteoporosis risk in the world, causing more hospitalization days than breast cancer, heart attacks, diabetes, and many other diseases combined.   BUSTING MYTHS   Myth: No need to worry about my bone health until I am older. Fact: Many people believe that concerns about bone health only arise in old age. However, approximately 90 percent of bone mass is established by age 18 in girls and age 20 in boys, as stated by the NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center. While postmenopausal fracture risks might not be a young person's primary concern, it's crucial to recognize that it's never too early to enhance bone density. Building strong bones and cultivating healthy nutritional habits from a young age can significantly prevent problems later in life.   Myth: Only women get osteoporosis. Fact: It is a common misconception that osteoporosis exclusively affects women, but this is only partially true. While more women than men are diagnosed with osteoporosis, men can still be affected. Recent studies in India debunk this myth, revealing that 56% of men had osteopenia (the stage before osteoporosis), and 7.2% had osteoporosis, challenging the misconception that osteoporosis is exclusive to women. Additionally, although dark-skinned men and women have a lower osteoporosis risk, those who develop the condition face a similar fracture rate. Surprisingly, younger men are more prone to bone fractures than women, debunking the myth that osteoporosis is solely a concern for older females.   Myth: Bones only break during falls. Fact: While falls are a common cause of fractures, weak bones can break even without a significant accident. Some individuals experience spontaneous fractures, like a simple movement causing a fracture. For instance, leaning over a surface or walking can lead to stress fractures, especially for osteoporosis patients. Even in hip fractures, some people report hearing or feeling the fracture without falling, highlighting that fractures can occur without a fall. MASTERING OSTEOPOROSIS: 5 NON-DRUG TIPS   1. Prioritize Calcium-Rich Diet:   * Aim for 1,000 mg of calcium daily [] if you are a man aged 50-70; increase to 1,200 mg daily if you are a woman over 51 or a man over 71. * Review dietary sources like dairy, green leafy vegetables, and nuts before considering calcium supplements.   2. Embrace Weight-Bearing Exercises:   * Engage in regular weight-bearing activities like walking, jogging, or dancing to strengthen bones and improve balance.   3. Quit Smoking and Limit Alcohol/Caffeine:   * Smoking weakens bones, so quitting is vital for bone health. * Limit alcohol and caffeine consumption, as excessive intake can harm bone density.   4. Practice Fall-Prevention Techniques:   * Modify your home environment to reduce fall risks, like securing rugs and installing grab bars. * Wear proper footwear and consider balance-enhancing exercises such as Tai Chi (Chinese martial art) [].   5. Optimize Vitamin D Intake:   * Aim for 600 IU of vitamin D daily [] if you are 51-70; increase to 800 IU daily if you are over 70. * Balance is key; recent studies suggest lower daily doses might be safer than high monthly doses.   Remember, these lifestyle changes, combined with regular check-ups and personalized guidance from your healthcare provider, can significantly improve your bone health and quality of life.  Click to get the diet tips for good bone health [].   THE BOTTOM LINE   On this world osteoporosis day 2023, let's raise awareness about the pivotal role of exercise in managing osteoporosis, alleviating pain, and preventing fractures. Spread the word on early diagnosis, emphasizing the importance of timely treatment. Encourage a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D while advocating against smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, both detrimental to bone health. Lead by example; prioritize your bone health and inspire others to do the same. Together, let's foster a culture of strong bones and well-being. #BoneHealth #OsteoporosisAwareness #BuildBetterBones   "To succeed in life, you need three things: a wishbone, a backbone, and a funny bone!"
Dr Archana Gupta
Know about 6 Super-Foods for Osteporosis
11 Mar 2023
6 mins
Know About 6 Super-Foods For OsteporosisOsteoporosis is a disease that weakens the bones and increases the risk of fractures. Women are more likely to develop this condition, especially those who are in the peri-menopausal stage. Most people probably know that calcium is vital for bone health. Besides calcium, there are certain minerals such as vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium, boron, vitamin C, copper, zinc, and protein that are essential for bone health. Here are six super-foods for osteoporosis to reduce the risk of developing this condition.   FOODS GOOD FOR OSTEOPOROSIS RISK PREVENTION   1. ORANGES   Oranges are rich in mineral calcium and vitamin C. Calcium is the bone building mineral that tops the list of nutrients essential for bone health. At least 1200 mg of calcium per day is needed for peri-menopausal women who are at more risk of osteoporosis [].  Many people know that vitamin C helps keep skin youthful. But vitamin C does a lot more than that. It is a wonderful antioxidant that promotes the collagen production required for bones and cartilage to form. Oranges also support heart health and lower blood pressure.    2. CRANBERRIES    These bright colored fruits are a good source of vitamin C and vitamin E. They also have a decent source of vitamin K1, vitamin B6, and copper. Vitamin C as well as vitamin K1 and copper, helps keep bone healthy.  A 2011 study states [] that the phytochemical compound called proanthocyanidins present in A-type cranberries helps lower bone breakdown. Cranberries are also helpful in lowering the chance of developing urinary tract infections.    3. TOMATOES   Tomatoes are an excellent source of vitamin C and vitamin K. The antioxidant called lycopene present in tomatoes is responsible for their color as well as their many health benefits. Lycopene improves bone health and helps prevent osteoporosis. A 2020 review states [] lycopene intake greater 30 mg per day is effective in reducing bone breakdown markers in postmenopausal women.    4. ALMONDS   Almonds are a rich source of calcium, vitamin E, manganese and magnesium. Rich in calcium and magnesium makes almonds suitable foods for osteoporosis. A higher intake of magnesium increases bone mineral density and helps reduce the risk of osteoporosis and fractures.  Almonds are also helpful in lowering cholesterol, diabetes, and risk of heart disorders. To have the maximum health benefits from almonds, have them without skin removed as the vital antioxidants are mainly concentrated in the layer of the skin.    5. SALMON FISH   This fish, rich in omega fatty acids, is not only delicious but also super-nutritious. There are various micronutrients good for bones that are found in salmon fish. It contains vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium, phosphorus, and potassium.  Vitamin D present in salmon helps the body absorb calcium and the function of bone cells. The minerals zinc and selenium help keep bones strong. The high-quality protein present in the salmon also improves bone health by supporting muscle strength.    6. OLIVE OIL   Olive oil is the preferable choice of cooking oil in people with heart disorders, diabetes, and cholesterol as it largely contains monounsaturated fat. A 2016 study [,prevent%20osteoporosis%20among%20the%20elderly.] states that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decrease in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover. Vitamin K present in olives plays an important role in bone metabolism and bone mineralization. It also protects brain function and boosts immunity.    TIPS ON FOODS FOR OSTEOPOROSIS   * Avoid eating foods that are rich in salt as it can lead to decreased calcium levels and bone loss. Limiting processed and fast foods would prevent excess salt intake and their effects on the body. * Drink tea, coffee, and sodas in moderate quantities. As the caffeine present in them, when consumed in larger quantities, may decrease calcium absorption. * Know that foods high in phytates, such as beans, wheat bran, etc., can interfere with the body’s ability in absorbing calcium.   PREVENTION IS ALWAYS THE BETTER STEP   Osteoporosis is a silent disease, and symptoms may often occur in later stages, and osteoporosis fractures can alter your life. The good news is it can be prevented if you start taking care of your bones soon. Other than adding foods good for osteoporosis prevention in your diet, there is something you can do to prevent osteoporosis. Get adequate sun exposure that triggers vitamin D production.  Have moderate exercise for at least two hours and thirty minutes every week. Resistance exercises and weight-bearing exercises are particularly important for improving bone mineral density and preventing osteoporosis. Finally, stop smoking and drink less. 
Know The Facts And Ways To Prevent Debilitating Bone Diseases
24 Feb 2023
7 mins
Know The Facts And Ways To Prevent Debilitating Bone DiseasesBone is essential to give a definite structure to our body. Bone diseases often go unnoticed until a person suffers a fracture and bone loss. Hence it is necessary to be aware of debilitating bone conditions and watch for their signs. Read further to learn more about each debilitating bone disease.   TOP 5 TYPES OF BONE CONDITIONS   1. OSTEOPOROSIS   Osteoporosis is a debilitating bone disease characterised by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissues, resulting in a high risk of fractures. It leads to an overall loss of bone strength and makes the bone weaker. Hence, even a slight bump or fall can lead to a broken bone. Osteoporosis shows almost zero signs and symptoms until a fracture happens. This is why we refer to it as a silent disorder.   Osteoporosis affects all bones [] in the body; however, fractures are more likely to occur in the spine, wrist, and hip. Fractures of the pelvic region, upper arm, and lower leg are also pretty common. Osteoporosis as a condition is not painful, but broken bones can lead to severe pain, significant distress, disability, and even death. Death is more common among people who suffer hip and spine fractures. Approximately 20% of people who suffer a hip fracture die within six months.    2. OSTEOMALACIA   Osteomalacia is a condition that affects the skeleton. It's often caused by a deficiency of vitamin D. It most commonly affects the elderly and people from some parts of Asia. Our body requires sufficient calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D to permit bone mineralisation. Osteomalacia will develop if the body doesn't have enough of these.    If you have osteomalacia, you are more likely to feel pain in the bones of the legs, groin, upper thighs, knees and feet. This pain subsides when you lie down or rest for a while. Sometimes even a minor knock on a bone will feel unusually painful. As the condition progresses, the person can experience pain everywhere, and simple movements can hurt.   Anyone who lacks vitamin D in their bodies is likely to develop osteomalacia. Though we can get vitamin D from foods, our body produces the maximum vitamin D. When you expose your skin to sunlight, cholesterol converts into vitamin D.    3. PAGET'S DISEASE   Paget's disease is a rare, chronic type of bone disease where bone rebuilds itself faster. The rebuilding process of the bone usually slows down with age. However, in Paget's disease, rapid bone rebuilding causes the bones to become too soft and large. This bone-weakening disease usually affects older people. Bones in the pelvis, spine, hips, thighs, head, and arms are commonly affected.    A possible gene activation due to exposure to a virus might cause Paget's disease. Men are more likely to get Paget's disease than women. This condition is more common among Europeans. Pain in the bones and joints, headaches, hearing loss, large bones, bent arms or legs, brittle bones, tingling and numbness are some of the notable symptoms of Paget's disease. People with Paget's disease may be more prone to arthritis, hearing problems, pain and general discomfort.   Consulting a rheumatologist or bone specialist early on can give access to accurate diagnosis and treatment. Starting treatment promptly can help manage this debilitating bone disease effectively, prevent complications and improve quality of life.    4. SCOLIOSIS   Scoliosis is a three-dimensional defect of the spine and the rib cage. It may develop as a single curve resembling the letter C or two curves similar to the S shape. Scoliosis may arise in the upper back [] or lower back but most commonly develops in the area between the upper and lower back.    The exact cause of scoliosis remains unknown in 80% of the cases. They are called idiopathic scoliosis and are mostly caused by genetics. However, the genes that trigger this debilitating bone disease are not yet identified.     5. BONE CANCER   Bone cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the cells of the bone. Primary bone cancer is rare. Bone cancer is a rare type of tumour that begins when cells in the bone start to grow and divide out of control. There are three major types of bone cancer,   * Osteosarcoma is cancer developing in the new tissues of growing bones. * Chondrosarcoma is a tumour that arises in the cartilage of the bones. * Ewing's sarcoma may develop in the nerve tissues of bone marrow.   Osteosarcoma is the most common cancer among these types, occurring most frequently during adolescence. The three primary treatment options for bone cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. These treatments are indicated either alone or in combination. Your oncologist will choose the appropriate treatment based on your cancer type, stage, location, speed of tumour growth, age, and overall health.    WAYS TO PREVENT DEBILITATING BONE DISEASE   A diet regimen rich in calcium and vitamin D is essential to maintain strong bones. Go outdoors whenever possible to expose your body to sunlight. Sunlight is the best way to get a maximum supply of Vitamin D. This is why we call vitamin D the sunlight vitamin. Exercises like brisk walking, jogging, tennis, etc., can help prevent bone-weakening diseases to a great extent. Doing physical activity for even 15 minutes a day will be of great benefit.
5 Ways To Prevent And Control Osteoporosis
22 Feb 2023
6 mins
5 Ways To Prevent And Control OsteoporosisOsteoporosis is a condition that makes your bones fragile and easy to fracture. It is often called a silent disease because it does not show symptoms in earlier stages. Hence it becomes important to start taking care of your bones soon. Read more to learn about 5 ways to prevent osteoporosis.    WHAT ARE THE 5 WAYS TO PREVENT OSTEOPOROSIS?    1. GETTING A SUFFICIENT AMOUNT OF CALCIUM IS THE BEST WAY TO PREVENT OSTEOPOROSIS    Our body needs calcium to build up and maintain bones healthily and stronger. Getting the right quantity of calcium is the first step in keeping bones healthy. Adults aged between 19 & 50 need 1000mg of calcium each day. Women aged above fifty and men aged above seventy need 1200 mg of calcium per day.    Calcium-rich food sources are milk and other dairy foods, broccoli, cabbage, nuts, sardines, salmon, and sesame seeds. Remember, if you take foods high in salt, it can make the body lose calcium. Excessive consumption of caffeine-rich products such as coffee, tea, and sodas can reduce calcium absorption. Also, foods rich in phytates, such as beans and wheat bran, can prevent the body from absorbing calcium.    2. GETTING ENOUGH VITAMIN D IS ALSO IMPORTANT    Calcium is vital for bones, while vitamin D is vital for the body to absorb calcium. Vitamin D deficiencies can limit the amount of calcium absorbed by the body. Some of the food sources rich in vitamin D are salmon, tuna, sardines, avocados, eggs, and milk. Sunlight triggers the production of vitamin D in our body, so exposure to sunlight is essential. It’s better to get the exposure before 10 am as the UV rays will be strongest after 10 am. UV rays can harm the skin.    Other than calcium and vitamin D, other nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin K, zinc, magnesium, and selenium can help keep the bones healthy.    3. EXERCISE REGULARLY   Exercise is one best ways to prevent osteoporosis. Poor posture, balance, and muscle weakness can increase the risk of falls and fractures. Regular exercise can improve muscle and bone strength and help prevent osteoporosis. Weight-bearing and resistant exercises are particularly helpful in increasing bone strength. Weight-bearing exercises include running, dancing, skipping, and aerobics.    Resistant exercises include press-ups and weight lifting. Aim for at least one-fifty minutes of moderate physical activity per week or 75 minutes of intense physical activity per week. You can also try yoga or tai-chi. A 2016 study [] states that 12 minutes of daily yoga help reverse bone loss. Tai-chi is more suitable for older people as it does not involve rapid physical movements. If you are trying these activities for the first time, be sure to get advice from a professional instructor.    4. SAY NO TO SMOKING AND DRINKING    Tobacco smoke contains more than 7000 chemicals which can affect the heart, lungs and immune system and lead to many chronic conditions. By quitting smoking alone, you can reduce half the risk of developing osteoporosis. Both alcohol consumption and smoking can lead to bone loss and increase the risk of fractures.    Alcohol can interfere with vitamin D synthesis and disrupt the calcium balance. Work with the health care professional to find out the effective ways of quitting these habits. If you still want to continue to drink, try not to drink more than the standard drink size [].    5. CONSIDER SCREENING IF YOU ARE AT HIGH RISK OF OSTEOPOROSIS    A bone density scan called DEXA, which helps determine if you have osteoporosis or are at risk, is usually recommended for women over the age of 65 and men over the age of 70. If your physician suspects you might have osteoporosis, he/she may suggest this bone density test for you. Or, if you think you have any risk factors, you can discuss this with your doctor about getting this test earlier.    The risk factors for osteoporosis include   * Had early menopause (before the age of 45) * Being a postmenopausal woman aged fifty or older * Not exercising regularly * Heavy drinking and smoking * Low body mass index (BMI) * Family history of osteoporosis * Had an organ transplant [] or weight loss surgery * Diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple myeloma, and other medical conditions that trigger osteoporosis * Taking steroidal medicines in high doses for more than 3 months   BE AWARE AND IMPROVE YOUR BONE HEALTH   Both men and women begin steps to prevent osteoporosis from a young age. If you think you are at risk of osteoporosis, consult your doctor. Earlier diagnosis can help manage the condition easily and avoid life-altering fractures.
Epidemiology Of Osteoporosis Treatment In Women - An Indian Perspective
18 Feb 2023
7 mins
Epidemiology Of Osteoporosis Treatment In Women - An Indian PerspectiveOsteoporosis is a bone problem characterized by the deterioration of bone tissue and loss of bone mass. Bone is a vital part that gives a definite structure to our body. When the bone mass is insufficient, there is a high risk of fractures.   Earlier, osteoporosis was considered incurable, and people had to bear the consequences. But with recent advances in medicine, several effective treatment options are available to manage osteoporosis. But does everyone have equal access to treatment? Are women more susceptible to osteoporosis? If so, how? Let us discuss in detail the epidemiology of osteoporosis in women of India.   EPIDEMIOLOGY OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN INDIAN WOMEN   Osteoporosis affects about 18.3% of people worldwide []. Fractures that occur after a minimal injury or trauma, especially in the spinal regions, are the most common and earliest indications of osteoporosis. Fractures are also an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Indian patients with osteoporosis. They have been reported to occur much earlier in Indians than in people in other countries.   A study published in 2015 reported that about 46 million women from India suffer from osteoporosis. This is why osteoporosis is considered a major health issue among Indian women.   RISK FACTORS THAT DECIDE THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF OSTEOPOROSIS IN INDIAN WOMEN   1. LOW CALCIUM IN DIET   Low calcium intake is predominant among children, adolescents, and pregnant and breastfeeding women. The difference in calcium intake is greater among people with lower socio-economic status. In economically weaker sections of society, the calcium intake in women is much lesser than that of men. The phytates and oxalates present in the fiber-rich Indian diet also play a part in slowing down calcium absorption.   2. DEFICIENCY OF THE SUNLIGHT VITAMIN   Although we do not have a shortage of sunlight in India, Indians are highly prone to vitamin D deficiency, irrespective of age. Poor dietary calcium, environmental pollution, sociocultural reasons, and a higher concentration of an enzyme called 25(OH)-d-24-hydroxylase are some of the main reasons Indians have vitamin D deficiency.   3. AGE DURING EACH HORMONAL CHANGE   The average age at which girls reach the stage of puberty in our country is 12.5 years. The age at which they undergo menopause is much earlier than in other countries. Thus the age-related risk factor is higher in Indian women.   4. RAPID CHANGES IN LIFESTYLE   Since our lifestyles are becoming faster, we have become more sedentary with low sun exposure and low physical activity. These are extremely problematic for bone health in the long run. Lack of movement and physical activity is one of the major reasons for low bone mineral density among Indian women. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF OSTEOPOROSIS TREATMENT [] IN WOMEN   Calcium and Vitamin D supplementation is the first-line approach to treating osteoporosis. Studies have reported that these supplements effectively reduced the number of fractures. In severe cases, making a shift to other pharmacological treatments is necessary.   Bisphosphonates like Alendronate, risedronate, and zoledronic acid are often prescribed along with calcium and Vitamin D supplements. These medicines reduce the risk of fractures by 40-50% in people who have suffered vertebral fractures before. After menopause, the estrogen hormones decline, drastically accelerating the process of bone loss. Thus, postmenopausal women benefit from hormone replacement therapy.   Calcitonin reduces the occurrence of fractures by 30% in women who have experienced vertebral fractures previously. However, this hormonal therapy has not been proven to reduce the risk of non-vertebral fractures. Parathyroid hormone therapy is another form of hormone replacement therapy that increases bone mineral density and reduces the risk of fracture to a great extent. Risk factors do not predict fractures and low bone density. However, evaluating the risk factors is useful to check whether the causes can be modified. Your physician will decide the appropriate treatment and prevention strategies by checking your risk factors. There are several treatments for osteoporosis. But since people from low economic backgrounds will not be able to afford the cost of diagnosis and treatment, the treatment option will be decided based on the patient's affordability. This is a major reason why many do not prefer getting treatment.   Elderly people have a greater risk of developing a fracture, increasing with age. Calcium, Vitamin D, and bisphosphonates are the first-line medicines to treat osteoporosis in Indian women. Other treatments are decided based on the person's affordability. Though awareness about osteoporosis has improved, we still have a long way to go regarding timely diagnosis and management.  Preventing osteoporosis is crucial to saving ourselves from extreme pain and burden. If you are aged above 65 years or have reached menopause, it is mandatory to check your bone mineral density levels at least once a year. Try to prevent falling down as much as possible. Exposure to sunlight for at least 15 minutes a day and eating foods rich in calcium and vitamin D. Regular weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercises are also essential.
Dr. Bhairavi
Recent Progresses In The Treatment Of Osteoporosis
17 Feb 2023
6 mins
Recent Progresses In The Treatment Of OsteoporosisGlobally, about one in three women and one in five men aged above fifty experience osteoporosis fractures in their lifetime. Let’s discuss what the most effective treatment for osteoporosis is.    WHAT IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE TREATMENT FOR OSTEOPOROSIS?    Treatment for osteoporosis is specific to an individual. Based on age, gender, overall health, the extent of osteoporosis, and preference, a healthcare provider will suggest treatment options. Treatment for osteoporosis generally includes mineral and vitamin supplements and prescription medications to prevent further loss of bone and maintain bone density.   Medications can be an effective treatment for osteoporosis and are generally recommended if the bone density test shows a T-score of -2.5 or below. Medications are also specifically prescribed for a particular person, one medication ideal for a person may not be suitable for another.    MEDICATIONS USED IN THE TREATMENT OF OSTEOPOROSIS   1. BISPHOSPHONATES   Bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed medication for men and women at risk of fractures. They help stop bone breakdown. After three to five years, the health care provider may suggest stopping taking this medication, and benefits usually continue to occur. The side effects that occur are heartburn, headache, fever, and kidney problems. Rare side effects, such as a crack in the thigh bone or delayed healing of the jaw bone, may usually occur with the prolonged use of this medication. Examples of these medicines are Alendronate, Risedronate, Ibandronate, and Zoledronic acid [].   2. DENOSUMAB   Like bisphosphonates, denosumab also helps stop the breakdown of bone. It is given as injections under the skin for six months once. It is often used when the other treatments fail to produce the benefits. The serious side effects of this medication are problems with the jaw, thigh, or spine bones. Recent research on osteoporosis suggests that after stopping this medication, the chances of getting spinal fractures are high.    3. HORMONE AND HORMONE-RELATED THERAPY   This category includes estrogen, testosterone, and SERMs. Loss of female hormone levels in women can cause bone loss. In such cases, estrogen replacement can help increase bone density by boosting estrogen levels. But as they may cause blood clots or other side effects, they are given typically for women who undergo menopause and younger women. SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator) also works like estrogen with lesser side effects. Raloxifene is the only SERM drug used in osteoporosis that helps reduce spinal fractures. It is generally used for five years. In men, testosterone replacement can be recommended if osteoporosis is caused by low testosterone levels. Calcitonin is a synthetic hormone that helps reduce spinal fractures. Estrogen and testosterone can be given as pills, patches, or creams. Raloxifene is given orally as tablets, and calcitonin is given as an injection or inhalation formulation.    4. PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH)   PTH hormone regulates the amount of calcium in the blood and bones and stimulates bone growth. Drugs such as teriparatide and Abaloparatide act like PTH, stimulate bone growth and increase bone density. They are given as daily injections for up to two years. These medicines are often used in the treatment of severe osteoporosis where the other treatment is not suitable or has not worked. The common side effects of PTH treatments are vomiting and nausea.    5. ROMOSOZUMAB   Romosozumab is a new medication that also helps treat severe osteoporosis like PTH. It stimulates bone growth as well as helps prevent bone breakdown []. Romosozumab is given as an injection once a month for one year. This medicine is generally recommended for postmenopausal women who are at high risk of fractures. Headaches, joint pain, trouble sleeping, swelling of hands, feet, and ankles are the side effects that may occur with Romosozumab.   THE BOTTOM LINE   Lifestyle changes coupled with medications make osteoporosis management effective. Oranges, cranberries, tomatoes, almonds, salmon, and avocado are ideal foods to include for improving bone health. Regular exercise is one of the important aspects of osteoporosis management. You can do weight-bearing or resistant exercises as your healthcare provider recommended. If you do not get enough calcium or vitamin D from dietary sources, ask your physician to prescribe supplements. You can follow some safety measures to prevent falls in the home [] and outside to avoid the risk of fractures.