Recent Progresses In The Treatment Of Osteoporosis

Recent Progresses In The Treatment Of Osteoporosis
17 Feb 2023
6 mins
Table Of Content
Recent Progresses In The Treatment Of Osteoporosis

    Globally, about one in three women and one in five men aged above fifty experience osteoporosis fractures in their lifetime. Let’s discuss what the most effective treatment for osteoporosis is. 

    What Is The Most Effective Treatment For Osteoporosis? 


    Treatment for osteoporosis is specific to an individual. Based on age, gender, overall health, the extent of osteoporosis, and preference, a healthcare provider will suggest treatment options. Treatment for osteoporosis generally includes mineral and vitamin supplements and prescription medications to prevent further loss of bone and maintain bone density.


    Medications can be an effective treatment for osteoporosis and are generally recommended if the bone density test shows a T-score of -2.5 or below. Medications are also specifically prescribed for a particular person, one medication ideal for a person may not be suitable for another. 

    Medications Used In The Treatment Of Osteoporosis


    1. Bisphosphonates


    Bisphosphonates are commonly prescribed medication for men and women at risk of fractures. They help stop bone breakdown. After three to five years, the health care provider may suggest stopping taking this medication, and benefits usually continue to occur. The side effects that occur are heartburn, headache, fever, and kidney problems. Rare side effects, such as a crack in the thigh bone or delayed healing of the jaw bone, may usually occur with the prolonged use of this medication. Examples of these medicines are Alendronate, Risedronate, Ibandronate, and Zoledronic acid.


    2. Denosumab


    Like bisphosphonates, denosumab also helps stop the breakdown of bone. It is given as injections under the skin for six months once. It is often used when the other treatments fail to produce the benefits. The serious side effects of this medication are problems with the jaw, thigh, or spine bones. Recent research on osteoporosis suggests that after stopping this medication, the chances of getting spinal fractures are high. 


    3. Hormone And Hormone-Related Therapy


    This category includes estrogen, testosterone, and SERMs. Loss of female hormone levels in women can cause bone loss. In such cases, estrogen replacement can help increase bone density by boosting estrogen levels. But as they may cause blood clots or other side effects, they are given typically for women who undergo menopause and younger women. SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator) also works like estrogen with lesser side effects. Raloxifene is the only SERM drug used in osteoporosis that helps reduce spinal fractures. It is generally used for five years. In men, testosterone replacement can be recommended if osteoporosis is caused by low testosterone levels. Calcitonin is a synthetic hormone that helps reduce spinal fractures. Estrogen and testosterone can be given as pills, patches, or creams. Raloxifene is given orally as tablets, and calcitonin is given as an injection or inhalation formulation. 


    4. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)


    PTH hormone regulates the amount of calcium in the blood and bones and stimulates bone growth. Drugs such as teriparatide and Abaloparatide act like PTH, stimulate bone growth and increase bone density. They are given as daily injections for up to two years. These medicines are often used in the treatment of severe osteoporosis where the other treatment is not suitable or has not worked. The common side effects of PTH treatments are vomiting and nausea. 


    5. Romosozumab


    Romosozumab is a new medication that also helps treat severe osteoporosis like PTH. It stimulates bone growth as well as helps prevent bone breakdown. Romosozumab is given as an injection once a month for one year. This medicine is generally recommended for postmenopausal women who are at high risk of fractures. Headaches, joint pain, trouble sleeping, swelling of hands, feet, and ankles are the side effects that may occur with Romosozumab.

    The Bottom Line


    Lifestyle changes coupled with medications make osteoporosis management effective. Oranges, cranberries, tomatoes, almonds, salmon, and avocado are ideal foods to include for improving bone health. Regular exercise is one of the important aspects of osteoporosis management. You can do weight-bearing or resistant exercises as your healthcare provider recommended. If you do not get enough calcium or vitamin D from dietary sources, ask your physician to prescribe supplements. You can follow some safety measures to prevent falls in the home and outside to avoid the risk of fractures.

    Written by
    GuruvigneshwariMedical Content Writer
    AboutM. Pharm (Pharmacognosy)
    Tags :osteoporosistreatment for osteoporosisbisphosphonatesDenosumab