This page contains brief details about the drug , it's indication, dosage & administaration, mechanism of action, related brands with strength, warnings and common side effects.

Background and Date of Approval

Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of medications called nitrofurans. FDA approved it on March 01, 1989, for treating and preventing infections that occur in the urinary tract. 

Mechanism of Action of undefined

Nitrofurantoin exerts its antimicrobial action by inactivating or altering bacterial ribosomal proteins and other macromolecules. As a result of this inactivation, the important biochemical process of protein synthesis, energy metabolism, DNA, RNA synthesis, and cell wall synthesis are inhibited in the bacteria. 

Uses of undefined

Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat infections of the bladder, kidney, and other parts of the urinary tract. It works by killing the bacterial organism that causes infection. 

undefined Drug administaration and Dosage available

Nitrofurantoin is available as an oral tablet. Your doctor will decide the dose and duration of Nitrofurantoin based on the disease condition and other factors. Always take this medicine as prescribed by your doctor. Take the tablet at the same time, with food. This will help avoid stomach upset and make the medicine work more effectively. Do not break, chew, crush, or break the tablet. Swallow the whole tablet with water. 

Warnings, Precautions and Side Effects of undefined


This drug is intended to cause severe lung and liver problems. Inform your physician if your urine is dark yellow or brown in color, fatigue, yellowing of the skin or eyes, itching, skin rashes, joint pain, abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, or pale or grey-colored stools after taking this medicine. Nerve damage has been reported in patients using this medicine. Notify your physician if you have kidney damage, anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, and vitamin B deficiency because these conditions may enhance nerve damage. Diarrhea may occur in some patients taking this medicine. 


Do not take this medicine if you are allergic to nitrofurantoin, other medicines containing nitrofurantoin, or other ingredients. Inform your physician if you are pregnant or breastfeeding or have kidney disease, blood disorders, or G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) deficiency. Inform your physician if you have diabetes, lung disease, liver problems, nervous disorder, or any other illness that cause severe weakness or tiredness, anemia, lack of vitamin B, or any other abnormal blood values. Nitrofurantoin is not recommended for children below 3 months of age. It is unsafe to take this medicine if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning for pregnancy. It is advisable to discuss it with your physician before the therapy. Your healthcare professional may advise you to take certain blood tests to monitor the effectiveness and side effects of the therapy. 

Side Effects

The common side effects include loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Other side effects include anemia, diarrhea, hypersensitivity reaction, lung infections, and nerve damage.

Word Of Advice

Do not store above 25˚C. Protect the medicine from light and excessive moisture. Keep the medicine out of reach of children and pets. If you forgot to take the tablet, take your next dose at the scheduled time. Do not take a double dose to make up for a forgotten dose. Inform your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, nutritional and vitamin supplements, and herbal products. Certain medications interact with nitrofurantoin and reduce its effectiveness by causing undesirable side effects. Do not take antacids with this medicine. Do not take this medicine if you are unable to urinate. It should be cautiously given to the patient with kidney problems. Dose adjustments are needed in patients with kidney failure or severe kidney disease. Complete the whole course of therapy even if you feel better after the first few doses. 

Frequently Asked Question


  1. Nitrofurantoin 100 mg Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (emc). [revised on 2019] [cited 2023 Apr 10]. Available from:
  2. Macrobid ® (Nitrofurantoin Capsules, USP). [revised on 2021] [cited 2023 Apr 10]. Available from:
  3. J. Goddard, A.N. Turner, Kidney and Urinary Tract Disease, Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine, 22nd Edition, 2014, 461-523.
  4. Camille E. Beauduy, Lisa G. Winston, Miscellaneous Antimicrobial Agents; Disinfectants, Antiseptics, & Sterilants, Lange’s Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 14th Edition, 2018, 895-903.


The drug information on this page is not a substitute for medical advice. It is meant for educational purposes only. For further details, consult your doctor about your medical condition to know if you can receive this treatment.