This page contains brief details about the drug , it's indication, dosage & administaration, mechanism of action, related brands with strength, warnings and common side effects.

Background and Date of Approval

Nivolumab consists of the active substance Nivolumab. It is indicated to treat cancers of the skin, lungs, kidney, lymph node, bladder, esophagus, and urinary tract. This medicine is indicated when the cancer has recurred after treatment using medicines, surgery, and radiation. It is a medication that helps the immune system fight cancer more effectively. It works by targeting and inhibiting specific molecules that can suppress or weaken the immune system's ability to recognize and attack cancer cells. By blocking these molecules, it helps to enhance the immune response against cancer and potentially shrink or slow the growth of tumors. 

One of the benefits of it and other immunotherapy drugs is that they can produce long-lasting responses in some patients, even after the treatment is stopped. This is in contrast to traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, which typically only provide temporary benefits and can have significant side effects. Nivolumab was first approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 22, 2014, for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Since then, it has received additional approvals for the treatment of other types of cancer.

Mechanism of Action of undefined

The therapeutic effect of nivolumab is to enhance the body's natural immune response to cancer cells. Cancer cells can often evade the immune system by producing proteins that bind to immune cells and prevent them from recognizing and attacking the cancer cells. Nivolumab works by blocking the interaction between a protein called programmed death-1 (PD-1), found on the surface of immune cells, and its corresponding ligands. Doing so enables the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively, helping to slow down or even stop cancer progression. In some cases, treatment with nivolumab can lead to long-lasting remission, even after treatment has ended. This is because the drug can stimulate the immune system to "remember" the cancer cells and continue to attack them even after the drug has been cleared from the body.

Uses of undefined

Nivolumab is primarily used to treat several types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and testicular cancer. It is also used off-label for treating other types of cancers, such as cervical cancer and melanoma. As part of a chemotherapy regimen, it is often used with other drugs to increase its effectiveness. In some cases, it may also be used as a single agent for treating certain cancers. It is particularly effective in the treatment of testicular cancer.

undefined Drug administaration and Dosage available

Nivolumab is a medication a healthcare professional administers, typically in a hospital or clinic setting. The medication is given as an intravenous (IV) injection by healthcare professional. The infusion typically takes several hours. You will be closely monitored during and after the infusion to ensure the medication works effectively and to watch for any side effects. The dosage and frequency of administration will depend on the condition being treated and your circumstances. Your healthcare provider will determine the appropriate dosage and schedule for you.

Warnings, Precautions and Side Effects of undefined


Nivolumab can cause immune-mediated adverse reactions, which can affect various organs in the body. These reactions can be serious or even life-threatening. It can cause infusion-related reactions, including fever, chills, or low blood pressure. It can cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman. It also increases the risk of infections, including bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.  It can increase the risk of developing secondary malignancies, including non-melanoma skin cancers and melanoma.


Patients receiving nivolumab should be monitored closely for any signs of immune-related adverse reactions, which can occur during or after treatment. Patients should report any new or worsening symptoms to their healthcare provider promptly, as some side effects can be serious and require medical attention. Women of childbearing potential should use effective contraception during treatment with nivolumab and for at least 5 months after the last dose. Patients should be monitored for any signs of infection, including fever, chills, or other symptoms. Patients should avoid prolonged sun exposure and use appropriate sun protection measures, such as wearing protective clothing and sunscreen, as nivolumab can increase the risk of skin cancer.

Side Effects

Nivolumab can cause a range of side effects, which can vary in severity. Common side effects of nivolumab include fatigue, nausea, skin rash, itching, loss of appetite, diarrhea, constipation, joint pain, and headache. More serious side effects can also occur due to the effects of nivolumab on the immune system, which can cause inflammation in different organs of the body. These side effects are known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and can include pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis, thyroid disorders, and adrenal insufficiency. Other rare but serious side effects of nivolumab may include severe allergic reactions, infusion-related reactions, neurological side effects, and eye disorders.

Word Of Advice

If you are considering or receiving Opdyta 100mg Injection treatment, it is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of the treatment with your healthcare provider. It is also important to follow all safety precautions and guidelines provided by your healthcare provider to minimize any potential risks associated with treatment. Be sure to report any new or worsening symptoms to your healthcare provider promptly, as some side effects can be serious and require immediate medical attention. Suppose you are a woman of reproductive age should use effective contraception during and for at least 5 months after the last dose of it to avoid potential harm to a developing fetus. Remember to take care of yourself and prioritise self-care during treatment. This can include eating a healthy diet, getting enough rest, and seeking support from loved ones or support groups.

Frequently Asked Question


  1. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 20th edition, 2018, 929-932
  2. Bristol-Myers Squibb, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Nivolumab, [ Last updated, 4 April 2023]. [ Accessed on 4 April]
  3. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 12th edition, 2011,1655-1660
  4. Takeda UK Ltd, Electronic Medicines Compendium (emc), Opdivo 10 mg/mL concentrate for solution for infusion, [Last updated: 30 October 2020], [Accessed on 4 April 2023],


The drug information on this page is not a substitute for medical advice. It is meant for educational purposes only. For further details, consult your doctor about your medical condition to know if you can receive this treatment.